Mesopotamia is an old reference to a larger area encompassing a lot more than this map. This is the central area, however, and was key during the time (100,000 B.C.E. to 1,500 C.E.). The two rivers seen in the map "Tigris" and Euphrates" offered water, and served as transport. There were many wars fought in this area since the beginning of time. I am not going to highlight every single one, we could be here all day.
The people that live here now have all of this in their background. Constant fights over religion, gods, and land has left this culture weary and agitated. We must understand that. We must also understand that most of the people in this region don't believe in government. Even Christians should recognize the saying, "Be no part of the world, as I am no part of the world" - Jesus Christ. Asking them to show obedience to someone other than their god could be considered disrespectful. Though both the Bible and the Qur'an have specific requests to obey governing authorities.
The fact is reforming this area needs to be done with finesse. Sort of like a brain surgeon in a foreign policy kind of way. Ignoring the situation is not an option. War is a last resort. If we want peace we must vote members into government that have peaceable solutions to the problems in the Middle East. Like always we must stay away from war-mongering. Lastly, we have to show compassion. Various sources claim 1,000,000 + deaths due to the wars in Iraq since 2011, on all sides. How many of them were casualties? All of them. This is just the opinion of one man.
Iraq Timeline. That's were I got a lot of the information on the history of Iraq. There's a lot of great reliable information there. Check it out.